Manual Therapy

The three most notable forms of manual therapy are manipulation, mobilisation and massage.

Manipulation is a rapid, end of range movement applied to a joint.

Mobilisation is a slower, more controlled process of articular (joint) and soft tissue (myofascial) stretching intended to improve biomechanical elasticity.

Massage is typically the repetitive rubbing, stripping or kneading of myofascial tissues to improve interstitial fluid dynamics.

Manual therapy in the physiotherapy profession is described as a clinical approach utilising skilled specific hands-on techniques, including but not limited to manipulation/mobilisation, used by the physical therapist to diagnose and treat soft tissues and joint structures for the purpose of modulating pain.

The aim of manual therapy can be to increase range of motion, reduce inflammation, improve tissue repair, extensibility, facilitate movement and improve function.

This often facilitates better movement and motor control (see below)

Dry Needling

Dry Needling is a westernized form of needling and is based on neurophysiology and anatomy. DN is used to treat dysfunctions in skeletal muscle, fascia and connective tissue/scar tissue.   The method of needling varies depending on the aim of needing.  It is used to reduce pain and restore function.

DN may be included as part of a treatment plan when myofascial trigger points are the cause of your pain, postural changes or functional impairment.

Trigger points are hyper-irritable nodules in a taught band of skeletal muscle. Active Trigger Points can be the source of persistent pain and produce local/referred pain, loss of range, loss of strength and endurance, and autonomic phenomena.

When needling a trigger point, a local twitch response may be elicited and this intramuscular stimulation releases the tension in the muscle fibers and results in a change in the physiological state of the muscle.  An endorphin release is also triggered with dry needling and this is your body’s own pain modulating chemical.

Biomechanical Analysis/Correction

This is an assessment used for determining factors that may contribute to an injury, especially in the case of a re-occurring injury or re-occurring pain.

It assesses posture, gait, joint range of motion, muscle length strength and co-ordination, alignment and functional movements (kinematics).

The aim is to determine incorrect forces acting through the body and to correct this abnormal loading and restore optimal movement, thereby restoring function and relieving pain.
This enables us to prescribe and assist with specific exercises and establish what manual therapy techniques would improve your function

Motor Control and exercise prescription

Motor control is the process by which humans and animals use their brain to activate and coordinate the muscles, spine and limbs involved in the performance of a motor skill.
We retrain movement which may involve postural correction, activation of specific muscles like the stabilizer muscles, retraining timing and firing and coordination of movement patterns and then incorporating these movement patterns into functional movements appropriate for the individual be it for work or for sport.

Strapping & Taping

Traditionally taping was used to reduce motion and support a joint or structure with overlapping strips of adhesive tape.  There are now many types of taping techniques that serve different functions and have a proprioceptive function which may assist better functional outcomes and return to sport

Strapping can aid healing by providing support and stability to a structure (joint, ligament or muscle) and reduce swelling.  It can reduce pain and also aid in proprioception which helps to protect a structure and also assist with posture correction

Kineseotaping has also been shown to aid lymphatic drainage and have a positive effect on the circulatory system.

Taping can be used in an acute injury to assist healing and return to sport as well as preventative taping to avoid injury.

Types of taping may include:
Traditional elastic adhesive bandage and rigid taping
McConnel taping
The methods of application vary for these different strapping materials.

Exercise Classes:

Dryland program for swimmers.
Core/Back and neck classes.


Cryotherapy, heat, electrotherapy.

We also work with individuals to maintain function and mobility and prevent loss of mobility.  This includes providing therapeutic treatment in circumstances where movement and function is threatened by aging, injury, disease or environmental factors.  Functional movement is central to what it means to be healthy.